Progressive Research Journal of Arts & Humanities (PRJAH) <h1><strong>Progressive Research Journal of Arts &amp; Humanities (PRJAH)</strong></h1> <p>Progressive Research Journal of Arts and Humanities (PRJAH) is an international, open access, peer reviewed, multidisciplinary, biannually published journal. PRJAH is in HEC Y-category, Google Scholar, CrossRef DOI and dedicated to promote and publish original articles in the relevant field of arts and humanitiesand aims to reduce the gap between research and practice. PRJAH provides a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical and theoretical research work. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Read more</strong></a></p> SARANGAA Litrary & Cultural Society en-US Progressive Research Journal of Arts & Humanities (PRJAH) 2707-7314 A Qualitative Exploration of Street Children Life in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the light of Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory <p>The number of street children is increasing at alarming rate in the country. The several composite factors drive these children to the street life where they are confronted with the numerous threats. This study proposed to explore the root causes alongside the risks connected with street life. A qualitative study design was used to interview 50 street children from 5 hotspot sites of Peshawar, which includes Haji Camp Adda, Gulbahar, Karhano Market, University Town and Firdous Bazaar. This study is based on Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory focusing on the quality and context of the child's environment. There are two types of street children available, on and off the Street children. The determinants included strict parenting style, orphan by father, large family size and backing family. The negative attitude of society, physical and sexual abuse, weather conditions, health and hygiene and long working hours are the high rank factors. Such the challenges and exposure adversely affect child personality and development. Constitution guaranteed basic rights of free and compulsory education and a dire need to provide a safe and protected environment with a comprehensive social rehabilitation and reintegration program for street children</p> Adnan Ashraf Muhammad Ibrar Faseeh Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 4 1 1 12 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.177 Parental Involvement and Academic Self-Concept: A Comparative Study of Government and Private Secondary School Children <p>This study examined the relationship between the parental involvement and academic self- concept of the private and government secondary school students. Thus, it was hypothesized that the parental involvement would be a significant predictor of academic self-concept of children, and also that there would be the differences in parental involvement and academic self-concept of the private and government school children. The sample was consisted of two hundred participants, among them hundred were students of government schools, and similarly hundred were the private school children of grades 6th to 8th. The parental involvement scale was given to the parents and academic self-concept was administered on the children; and they also reported the involvement of their mother or father in such the studies. The age range was 11 to 14 years for children and of parents was 35 to 45 years. The results of the study indicated as the positive relationship of parental involvement with academic self-concept of school students. The parental involvement found as a significant predictor of the academic self-concept of students. The parents of the private school children found more involved than the parents of government schoolchildren. The implications discussed in terms of increasing awareness among government schools to involve the parents more in the studies of their children for better learning outcomes.</p> Lubna Ahmed Soomro Muniza Malik Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 4 1 13 24 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.178 Critical Action-implicative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Covid-19 Awareness Campaigns on Pakistani Media <p>With the spread of Covid-19, many rumors, conspiracy theories, and discourse of fear came into existence. The mainstream media was one of the main sources to educate the masses against such idiosyncrasies and made them save themselves from the disease and its other harmful impacts. In line with this, the study aims at examining Covid-19 awareness campaigns on Pakistani TV channels critically. To evaluate the appropriateness of 24 campaigns/commercials, which were selected through a purposive sampling, a critical multimodal discourse analysis of the campaigns was carried out, using Systemic Functional Grammar proposed by Halliday (2013) (for linguistic resources) along with Kress and van Leeuwen’s Visual Grammar (for nonlinguistic resources). The analysis of campaigns revealed that a few campaigns (e.g., the campaigns of SAMAA TV, PTV, and ISPR) contain sociosemiotic resources (e.g., language, signs, sound, color, picture, animation, actions, etc.) that were more appropriate socio-psychically for Pakistani context, but most campaigns (e.g., the campaigns of Geo TV, ARY, etc.) lack the action-implicative discourse. The study suggests that TV campaigns be culturally and psychologically fit to the context and be action-implicative</p> Hafiz Nauman Ahmed Ali Rizwan Pasha Muhammad Islam Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 4 1 25 40 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.179 An Evaluation of Police Mental Health Issues in Peshawar, Pakistan <p>Police officers throughout the world in general and in Pakistan in a particular face a variety of pressures, which is particularly true in underdeveloped nations like Pakistan. The aim of this research was to know about mental health (MH) problems and risks as well as issues among police officers that they face during their duty in the Police Service of Pakistan, in addition to collect suggestions for workplace, wellness and interventions that would be an appropriate for police personnel. For the primary data collection, twenty five police personnel from the various ranks- were interviewed in person and over the phone from the field duty and inside police stations too. Mental health issues, health behavior, occupation, and possible positive workplace interventions were all discussed throughout the interviews from the informants. The thematic analysis strategy was employed for data analysis. Higher levels of work anxiety and stress, as well as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD), and depression were noted among police personnel. Overloading, working hours, Culture of policing, and organizational changes were all mentioned as major pressures. Some of the police personnel acknowledged advances in managing and promoting mental health in their job, but they listed intrusions such as counselling, training, and workplace modifications as the necessary to tackle mental health challenges in police personnel.</p> Farhat Ullah Sara Qayum Anwar Khan Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 4 1 41 53 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.180 Socio-Cultural Problems of Working Women in the Media Industry of Hyderabad, Pakistan <p>Pakistan is the country where women workers face socio-cultural problems in the every field. But media field is a level head that brings more problems and challenges for them. The several research papers conclude with findings that Pakistan is not a suitable country for media working women. The numerous working women in the media sector of Hyderabad were unattended. Sadly to write that there was no thorough research ever conducted on their sociocultural problems. Hence, the qualitative research, with a purposive sampling method was conducted on socio-cultural problems of working women. Initially, 40 participants’ list was prepared from both print and electronic media, but later 20 participants were purposively short-listed for in-depth interviews. Moreover, the interviews were recorded in local languages: Sindhi and Urdu. The research revealed that they were pressurized, hindered, and misbehaved when they came into the field of media. The study exhibited that family members’ prejudice and pressure, society’s bad comments and wrong perceptions, males’ stereotype thinking, and overload of work were the topmost socio-cultural problems that women face in their entire media career. Moreover, they are considered an immoral, and receive the fewer marriage proposals. Mostly media women face problems from their families. So, such the families should support and encourage them. Though laws are present, yet unimplemented. Law enforcement agencies should strictly implement the available laws that protect women inside and outside the working environment.</p> Saeedah Shah Aijaz Ali Wassan Nagina Parveen Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 4 1 54 64 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.181 Sacrificing and Saving the Lamb: Betrayal, Guilt, and Redemption in The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini <p>Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner (2003) tells the first-person narrative of a traumatized protagonist who tries to atone for his past sins and transgressions through committing acts of atonement and compassion. As Amir tells his story to the reader, he also uses storytelling as an act of healing one’s psyche and as a means of liberating himself from the “karma” of guilt. By the end of the novel, Amir comes to terms with his troubled past, can live a relatively more peaceful life, and starts a journey of rediscovering his fellow Afghani community in the United States whom he begins to cherish as his identity reference group. This article uses a methodological approach based on thematic analysis (TA) to analyze the narrative texture of the story. TA is more focused on what is said rather than how it is said that is often a concern for discourse analysis or conversation analysis. Using TA, this article investigates how the protagonist comes to have a compelling sense of remorse that forces him to seek redemption. Told against the background of the devastated country of Afghanistan ravaged by wars and violence, The Kite Runner is a powerful narrative of personal guilt, redemption, and reconciliation with one’s community in a foreign land</p> Imdad Ullah Khan Saood Khan Ayesha Perveen Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 65 – 75 65 – 75 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.182 Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurship Intention among the Private University Students of Pakistan <p>The study proposes to investigate the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intention (SEI) among the students of private universities of Pakistan. A conceptual model is developed from the literature, and the hypotheses are formulated for testing. This is a quantitative study of the nature. We collected the cross-sectional data from private university students by employing quota sampling. In total, 400 questionnaires were distributed. In return, 244 usable samples were received back and valid 61% of response rate. By employing the structural equation modeling, the outcomes of a study show a positive and significant influence of emotional intelligent (EI) creativity and moral obligation (MO) on SEI among the private universities’ students of Pakistan. The conclusion of an investigation would help in knowing the role of creativity, EI and MO in developing the SEI. The university authorities and policymakers may develop their ideas to divert the mind of the students towards SEI in order to reduce the burden of unemployment. Finally, it would contribute to the literature of entrepreneurship and psychology, particularly for developing contexts.</p> Erum Shah Abbas Ali Shah Abdul Jaleel Mirjat Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 76 – 89 76 – 89 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.183 Evaluating Dynamics of Sino-India Relations: Cooperation, Competition and Conflict <p>Recent border skirmishes between China and India are the new episode in the competitive relationship between the two. Competitive relationship comes out of divergences between the on various fronts especially their rise in power potentials and desire to become regional hegemons. Though Sino-Indian relationship has been cooperative-competitive since the first India-China border war in 1962, today it is considered as the most complex, competitive, and conflict-prone. Their border issues, trade competition and political influence in the South Asia and Indian Ocean region are the crucial factors in the cooperative-competitive relationship. Chinese massive naval build-up and assertiveness in the south and East China Sea and India’s strategic partnerships with the extra-regional powers have made the relationship more complicated. This paper tries to dissect the complex nature and dynamics of the competitive-cooperative Sino-India relationship. It explains the pattern of China-India bilateral relations with specific focus on competition, conflict, and cooperation. Effort has also been made to evaluate the impact of the conflict or cooperation cycles on their nature and development of bilateral ties.</p> Hussain Abbas Bilal Habib Qazi Ronaque Ali Behan Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 90 – 103 90 – 103 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.184 A Content Analysis of the Hindu Marriage Act - 2017 <p>In 2017, the Parliament of the Pakistan unanimously passed a long-awaited legislation namely the Hindu Marriage Act, 2017. The legislation on the Hindu marriage was to serve the purpose of providing a legal status to the Hindu marriages. The Act is considered a landmark legislation dealing with the personal law of the Hindu community. Since the present legislation is a recent phenomenon, there exists no scholarly work analyzing the context and content of the Act, 2017.The present study intends to interpret the structure of and the themes lies in the text of the Act while employing primarily a qualitative content analysis methodology. The article gives two-fold explanation of the text of the Act, 2017; firstly, the text of the Act is heavily relied upon the text of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 of India; secondly, it is a manifestation of the post-colonial legal plurality and the Hindu customary laws. It is argued that the one, who wishes to understand the essence of context and content of the Act, needs to have an understanding of both the legal pluralism and the Hindu customary laws. The present study generates a debate on the correlation between the customary law and the state law.</p> Dilawar Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 104 – 114 104 – 114 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.185 History of Terrorism and its Mitigation through Intelligence <p>An extensive set of literature exists that discusses different facets of terrorism. This paper argues that the lack of understanding on what exactly is terrorism and how to define it is often reflected in the counter-terrorism and antiterrorism measures taken by the state actors. This paper aims at making sense of the history of modern terrorism using Rapoport's Waves of Terrorism Theory, as well as the counter-measures that were taken against the particular wave of terrorism. The paper argues that intelligence has to play a central role in counter-terrorism as without accurate intelligence no counterterrorism measure can work. Using the historical research method, this paper is based on both primary and secondary sources. In depth open-ended interviews were conducted with the experts as well as academics and journalists working on the subject. This data was then supplemented by the secondary sources such as books and research papers to develop a comprehensive theoretical understanding of terrorism and its various dimensions, as well as of anti and counter terrorism measures</p> Kashif Jamal Khan Copyright (c) 2022 PRJAH Copyrights 2022. All rights reserved. 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 4 1 115 –128 115 –128 10.51872/prjah.vol4.Iss1.186