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The Naxalite movement is a famous movement going on in many districts of the different states of India. This movement is considered to be one of the biggest challenges to the Indian state. This study aims to look at the matter through historiography, investigating when this movement began and the root causes behind the movement. By consulting other studies already completed about this movement, it has been analyzed that the major cause behind the movement was the suppression of peasantry at the hands of the landlord, bourgeois, and capitalist classes, and as a result, the peasantry stood up against the cruelty of landlordism and killed one of the landlords in a remote village, Naxalbari, West Bengal. But later on, this movement turned against the mega-development projects set by multinational companies in collaboration with the government. Hence, this research is an attempt to present the historical events, causes, and motivations behind the launching and continuity of the movement. The study is based on secondary data by taking the relevant literature to learn the perspectives of both sides, i.e., Naxal leadership and also government authorities. In this regard, few reports set by different committees and commissions can be more helpful in understanding and analyzing matters.